“Harris and Narayan describe some of the misconceptions about affirmative action. They contend that the “stigma argument” against affirmative action dissolves when such programs are understood as equalizers of opportunity rather than as initiatives that merely bestow preference on their beneficiaries.”
Narayan, Uma, and Luke C. Harris. 1999. “Affirmative Action as Equalizing Opportunity: Challenging the Myth of “Preferential Treatment”.” National Black Law Journal 16(2):127-143.